Original Article

Practice of Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Methods among Women Living in Samsun, and Factors Associated with This Practice


  • Servet Aker
  • Hatice Öz
  • Ebru Kaynar Tunçel

Received Date: 06.03.2015 Accepted Date: 07.03.2015 Eur J Breast Health 2015;11(3):115-122


The purpose of this study was to assess practice of breast cancer early diagnosis methods among women and the factors associated with this practice.

Materials and Methods:

The population of this cross-sectional study consisted of 410,377 women over the age of 20, living within the administrative borders of Samsun province. Stratified systematic sampling was used in the selection of the 800-member sample. The Health Belief Model Scale, a questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions, was used to elicit women’s demographic data and determine their awareness on early diagnostic techniques. The questionnaires were administered face-to-face by visiting individuals’ addresses.


80.5% of women had knowledge on breast self-examination (BSE). 12.6% of the women who were aware of BSE stated that they regularly performed BSE. 30.4% of women had clinical breast examination (CBE) by health personnel at least once, while 36.8% of women over 40 years of age obtained mammography at least once. Factors associated with women’s performance of BSE were age, having received education about breast health, perception of severity, barriers for BSE and self-efficacy. Factors affecting CBE included age, presence of history of breast cancer in a relative or friend, having received education about breast health; while factors associated with women’s undergoing mammography were identified as age, a family member with a history of breast cancer and barriers for mammography.


Determination of the factors associated with practice of breast cancer early diagnosis methods, and implementation of planned training programs based on these results is important in increasing compliance with these methods.

Keywords: Breast cancer, breast self-examination, physical examination, mammography