E-ISSN 2587-0831
Original Article
Breast Cancer in Turkey: Clinical and Histopathological Characteristics (Analysis of 13.240 Patients)
1 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey  
Eur J Breast Health 2014; 10: 98-105
DOI: 10.5152/tjbh.2014.1988
Key Words: Turkey, breast cancer, stages, pathology, molecular subtypes, hormone receptors, prognostic factors

Objective: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in women in Turkey, as elsewhere around the world. However, detailed and systematic demographics, data on clinical and pathological characteristics, and treatment were largely unavailable in Turkey until now. This paper is intended to provide an analysis of clinical and pathological data on women registered in the National Breast Cancer Database (Ulusal Meme Kanseri Veri Tabanı [UMKVT]), established within Turkish Federation of Breast Diseases Societies (TMHDF) and available for use in Turkey since 2005.


Materials and Methods: Clinical and pathological data on breast cancer patients registered online in the database from May 01, 2005 to May 01, 2011 were investigated. Parameters examined in patients included age, menopausal status, distribution of clinical and pathological stage, histological type, tumor diameter, histological grades, regional lymphatic stage, estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), HER-2 receptors and molecular subtypes. Analysis results of these parameters were compared with literature data and discussed.


Results: A total of 13,240 patients with breast cancer since April 07, 1992 were included in the study, and 99% of them were female. Female breast cancer patients whose requisite parameters had been completely entered in the database were included in the analysis. The mean age was 51.6 years (±12.6; range 12-97), 17% of them were younger than 40 years of age, and 45% were premenopausal. According to an analysis of age groups at diagnosis, the frequency of cancer peaked at the 45 - 49 age group with 16.7%, declining to 7.6% in the 65-69 age group, and then rose again. Most of the patients (78.7%) had invasive ductal, 7.8% were invasive lobular cancers, 9.8% were invasive mixed cancers (invasive ductal + invasive lobular), and 4% were other histological types (e.g. inflammatory, intracystic papillary, mucinous, etc.), respectively. Half of them (50%) had grade III histology. According to an analysis of pathological stages of all breast cancers (stage 0 - IV), 5% were stage 0, 27% were stage I, 44% were stage II, 21% were stage III, and 3% were stage IV breast cancer, respectively. The mean tumor diameter was 2.5 cm (±1.6; range 0.1-20 cm). The rates of lymphatic stages were pN0 50%, pN1 28%, pN2 15%, and pN3 7%, respectively. ER, PR, and HER-2 receptors were positive in 70%, 59%, and 23% of patients. A subtype analysis of tumors showed that 62% were type luminal A. This was followed by subtypes luminal B (15%), triple negative (15%), and HER-2 positive (8.5%).


Conclusion: As a conclusion patients with breast cancer in our breast cancer registry program were younger, and had more advanced disease, and worse prognostic factors than patients in developed countries.

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